Effects of Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation Using Inversely Placed Electrodes on Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Shoulder: A Case Series.
Korean J Pain. 2016 Apr;29(2):136-40
Authors: Shanmugam S, Mathias L, Thakur A, Kumar D
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the common musculoskeletal conditions of the shoulder which may develop sensory-motor and autonomic dysfunctions at the various level of the neuromuscular system. The pain and dysfunction caused by MPS were primarily treated with physical therapy and pharmacological agents in order to achieve painfree movements. However, in recent years intramuscular electrical stimulation (IMES) with conventional electrode placement was used by researchers to maximise therapeutic values. But, in this study an inverse electrode placement was used to deliver electrical impulses intramuscularly to achieve neuro-modulation at the various level of the nervous system. Nine patients with MPS were treated with intramuscular electrode stimulation using inversely placed electrodes for a period of three weeks. All nine subjects recovered from their shoulder pain and disability within the few weeks of intervention. So, this inverse electrode placement may be more appropriate for chronic pain management.
PMID: 27103970 [PubMed]