Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2022 May;33(2):307-333. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2022.01.011.
Myofascial pain and myofascial pain syndromes are among some of the most common acute and chronic pain conditions. Many interventional procedures can be performed in both an acute and chronic pain setting to address myofascial pain syndromes. Trigger point injections can be performed with or without imaging guidance such as fluoroscopy and ultrasound; however, the use of imaging in years past has been recommended to improve patient outcome and safety. Injections can be performed using no injectate (dry needling), or can involve the administration of local anesthetics, botulinum toxin, or corticosteroids.