Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 10;18(18):9552. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189552.
BACKGROUND: Myofascial pain is an important cause of disability among the whole population, and it is a common symptom of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). Its management techniques vary widely; however, in recent years, there has been a growing interest especially in needling therapies within masticatory muscles, due to their simplicity and effectiveness in pain reduction.
METHODS: The construction of the following study is based on PICOS and PRISMA protocols. A systematic literature search was conducted based on the PubMed and BASE search engines. Searching the abovementioned databases yielded a total of 367 articles. The screening procedure and analysis of full texts resulted in the inclusion of 28 articles for detailed analysis.
RESULTS: According to analyzed data, clinicians manage myofascial pain either with wet or dry needling therapies. The most thoroughly studied approach that prevails significantly within the clinical trials is injecting the botulinum toxin into the masseter and temporalis. Other common methods are the application of local anesthetics or dry needling; however, we notice the introduction of entirely new substances, such as platelet-rich plasma or collagen. In the analyzed articles, the target muscles for the needling therapies are most commonly localized by manual palpation although there are a variety of navigational support systems described: EMG, MRI or EIP electrotherapy equipment, which often aid the access to located deeper lateral and medial pterygoid muscle.
CONCLUSIONS: Needling therapies within masticatory muscles provide satisfactory effects while being simple, safe and accessible procedures although there still is a need for high quality clinical trials investigating especially injections of non-Botox substances and needling within lateral and medial pterygoid muscles.